The marine reptiles forum, which was unfortunately hacked last year (2013) and has been offline for several months since, is now back up and running. Richard Forrest was able to salvage all the old posts and user information, and has restored the forum at a dedicated new domain: marinereptiles.org. The forum is home to an open community of fossil marine reptile researchers and enthusiasts, and is an excellent place to discuss all manner of topics related to prehistoric marine reptiles. The site is run by Richard Forrest (plesiosaur.com), Mike Everhart (oceansofkansas.com), and myself, so we’ll do our best to minimise spam and approve genuine new members without too much delay. Registration is now open so see you there!
The Golden Trilobite is awarded annually by the Palaeontological Association to “high quality amateur and institutional websites that promote the charitable aims of the Association”. I’ve no idea who nominated my website this year, but my thanks go to whoever raised it to the attention of the the PalAss Council, because it was a welcome surprise to learn that the Plesiosaur Directory was awarded the 2013 Golden Trilobite.
I’m obviously delighted and honoured for The Plesiosaur Directory to win this award, and I thank PalAss for recognising the site in this way. The Plesiosaur Directory started life as a small Geocities hosted site way back in June 2001, under the full title of “THE PLESIOSAUR DIRECTORY: A REVIEW OF THE SAUROPTERYGIA”. The site transferred to its own domain in March 2006 (plesiosauria.com), and remained in a basic html format until 2011, when I finally learned a bit of php and launched a new version of the site. This has been steep learning curve for someone with no training, and things are only going to get more difficult, as my next task is to convert The Plesiosaur Directory to a database driven site (at the moment only the plesiosaur bites blog is database driven), which will make it far easier to update and manage. The site has received other accolades in the past, such as when the journal ‘Science’ featured it in the “best of the Web in Science” (2006, Vol 313, Issue 5791, P.1211), so I suppose this means I must be doing something right.
However, these accolades remind me that there’s so much work left to do. Frankly, I’m not satisfied with the site as it stands, and I’m fully aware there are a great many genera missing from the directory, and numerous pages are rapidly becoming out of date as palaeontology marches on relentlessly. Some of the content hasn’t been updated since 2001, and was therefore written by a 20-year-old student version of myself. Back then, I could barely string together a coherent sentence. There are all sorts of reasons why I’ve let things slowly slip a little. However, this award will spur me on to upgrade the code, fill in those missing gaps, update the various galleries and pages, and write blog articles more frequently. There’s certainly no shortage of topics to cover.
The Plesiosaur Directory isn’t the only site dedicated to plesiosaurs. There are, in my opinion, other sites equally deserved of such an award. The Plesiosaur Site (plesiosaur.com), in particular, run by Richard Forrest, contains a wealth of data on plesiosaurs. Especially useful is the database containing information on plesiosaurian collections, distribution, taxonomy, and references. A major inspiration. Richard also hosted The Marine Reptiles Forum on plesiosaur.com until it was hacked earlier this year. We hope to get that back up and running soon.
For more information on the Golden Trilobite, including previous winners, see here.
I’ve been rather quiet again recently, however, as coauthor of an article just published in PLOS ONE, I’ve good reason to come out of my shell today. The new paper describes and names the Weymouth Bay Pliosaur, a spectacular almost complete skull over 2m long from. As discussed in the open access paper (do take a look), the specimen is sufficiently different from all other pliosaurs to warrant a scientific name of its own, Pliosaurus kevani.
Pliosaurus kevani was named in honour of Kevan Sheehan, the Osmington Mills café owner who collected most of the skull, piece by piece, over a period of eight years during daily walks along the foreshore. Kevan collected chunks up to 60 kg in mass as they weathered out from the Jurassic aged Kimmeridge Clay Formation sea-cliff. The specimen was purchased with funding secured by Dorset County Council’s museum service from the Heritage Lottery Fund Collecting Cultures programme and Dorset and Devon county councils. It was prepared between 2010 and 2011 by Scott Moore-Fay and went on public display in Dorchester County Museum in July 2011.
Richard Forrest, who was involved with the project from the beginning, first had the idea of putting together a ‘dream team’ of British plesiosaur specialists to study and describe the skull. This is the first collaboration of its kind among plesiosaur researchers (as far as I know), and I feel lucky to have had the opportunity to contribute to it under the driving force of our lead author, Roger Benson.
The massive skull has a long snout, circular orbits, huge temporal openings for the jaw musculature, and a deep mandible. Large portions of the skull have been crushed flat during fossilisation, so one of my tasks was to reconstruct the skull to show how it might have appeared before it was flattened. After several versions and much input from Mark Evans, I’m pleased with how it turned out, and I think we have a pretty accurate reconstruction of Pliosaurus. On the basis of this reconstruction I’ve also had a go at restoring the life appearance of the head of P. kevani in profile. Despite its large size and massive teeth, the head is rather gracile.
Pliosaurus belongs to a group of plesiosaurians known as thalassophonean pliosaurs. If you haven’t heard of them before, that’s because the name Thalassophonea, or “sea slayers”, was proposed just this year (Benson & Druckenmiller, 2013) for a natural group of derived giant pliosaurids including Pliosaurus, Liopleurodon, and Kronosaurus. Thalassophoneans were macropredators, that is, giant predators doing the sort of dirty work in the Middle-Late Jurassic and Cretaceous that rhomaleosaurids had done in the Early Jurassic. The paper also discusses the evolution of pliosaurids. The earliest thalattophoneans have a long mandibular symphysis, but in later member it becomes shorter. This trend is related to a shift in the dietary habits of pliosaurs from primarily fish-eaters to macropredators. In conjunction with this trend, we demonstrate that pliosaurids tend to follow Cope’s Rule – they get larger throughout their evolutionary history.
We also name two other new species of Pliosaurus in the paper, P. westburyensis and P. carpenteri, based on material in the Bristol Museum & Art Gallery from Westbury, Wiltshire. Again, there are aspects of the morphology in these specimens that distinguish them from one another, but don’t justify new genus names. So, add these new species to the existing list of valid Pliosaurus species (P. funkei, also known as Predator X, P. brachydeirus, P. rossicus, there might be one or two more, pending thorough description of the material) and we find ourselves with a rather large number of species within a single genus (although some invalid species of Pliosaurus are sunk too). Future research might show greater generic diversity among these species, but that’s really dependent on the discovery of more satisfactory fossil material.
Earlier this month I co-authored a poster at SVP 2012 describing a new pliosaur from the Sinemurian of Lyme Regis (Smith and Araújo, 2012). I was unable to attend the conference in person so my collaborator and friend Ricardo Araujo was on hand to present our preliminary findings.
The spectacular specimen was discovered at Black Ven, Lyme Regis, and was acquired by the Niedersächsisches Landesmuseum, Hanover, where it was expertly prepared in the 1990s by their preparator, Elija Widman. The fossil consists of an almost complete skull and vertebral column.
As explained in our poster, the fossil represents a new taxon that is both stratigraphically and morphologically intermediate between known Hettangian and Toarcian rhomaleosaurid pliosaurs. Which makes perfect sense. A legible (just about) jpg version of the poster is available here or by clicking the small version below, and a PDF of the abstract is available here. This is very much a work in progress though and more of a sneak preview than a final word. We have a paper in prep which will provide a more detailed description of the specimen.
Smith, A.S. and Araújo, R. 2012. A new rhomaleosaurid pliosaur from the Sinemurian (Lower Jurassic) of Lyme Regis, UK. Program and abstracts, 72nd Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Supplement to the online Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 74. [PDF here]
[Incidentally, how does one cite an SVP abstract correctly these days?]