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Book review: Kronos Rising: Kraken (vol. 1), by Max Hawthorne

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“[His] mind began to shut down in an effort to preserve his sanity” – Garm Braddock in Kronos Rising: Kraken (vol. 1)

Hawthorne’s mahoosive Kronosaurus imperator is back and this time she’s brought her buddies along for the ride. This sequel to Kronos Rising (which I reviewed here) is set decades after the events of the first book, in a world where pliosaurs now run amok. Oceanic ecosystems are in turmoil and it’s time to get military on these bastard reptiles! Beefcake brothers Garm and Dirk are at the heart of proceedings as they take steps to emerge victorious from the raging ‘Saurian War’. Little do they know the titular Kraken is waiting to arrive on the scene to cause even more havoc…

Kronos Rising: Kraken (vol. 1.) cover

I won’t comment in detail on the story, style, tone, characters, and so on. I have opinions, of course, but who am I, as a lowly palaeontologist, to judge? All I’ll say is that it wasn’t to my taste. What I can focus on, as I did in my previous review, is the science. The aspects of the book that only a pedant like me will get his undies in a bind over. So, that’s what I’ll do – it’s panty twisting time.

One of my criticisms of the original novel was the dubious status of the species Kronosaurus imperator. This is the sort of nit-pick that only the most hard-nosed academic would rest any importance on, but I noticed the issue is still not resolved in Kronos Rising: Kraken. It means the species is technically invalid – a nomen nudum. This strikes me as somewhat appropriate given Hawthorne’s proclivity for exposing his characters’ most intimate fleshy parts.

Generally the anatomical descriptions are very good (n.b. I’m talking about the reptiles now!) and Hawthorne has done research to ensure the scientist characters use the correct language and terminology. However, he’s also not afraid to take liberties. For example, in the book, pliosaurs lay spherical eggs in nests, whereas we know sauropterygians gave birth to live young. The pliosaur’s teeth are described as sharply ridged with razor-sharp ends, whereas the course ridges on pliosaur teeth aren’t sharp, and pliosaur teeth really taper to a blunt bone-crushing apex. The fictional monsters skin consists of a “thick hide covered with rock hard scales”, yet it “absorbs 30% of the oxygen they need from the water”. In reality, there would have to be a compromise – skin has to be thin to absorb oxygen. In my Kronos Rising review I compiled a long list of the pliosaur’s superpowers. We can now also add camouflage onto said list. Don’t get me wrong, these are not complaints per se, I’m just saying. The key word to remember here – fiction. Let it go, let it go!

As with the previous novel, there’s a worrying infatuation with large size, be it the size of the creatures, the vessels, the machinery, the architecture, Dirk’s penis, Garm’s penis. “What can I say? Size matters!” chuckles one of the characters in the book. If you, too, believe size matters, then this is the book for you!

While Kronos Rising: Kraken (vol. 1) didn’t float my boat, aficionados of maritime monster fiction should probably pick up a copy and judge for themselves. Can thousands of Hawthorne’s fanatic ‘Legions of Kronos’ be wrong? Kronos Rising: Kraken (vol. 1), is available from here and here. The official Kronos Rising website is located at and you can also visit and like the Kronos Rising Facebook Page here, where Hawthorne makes a special effort to engage with readers, and sometimes puts forward his own interesting pet paleontological hypotheses. Lastly, thanks go to Max for the review copy – I hope you don’t regret the kind gesture!

A quick additional note. The original Kronos Rising novel now has a swanky new front cover, featuring amazing artwork. Check it out!

Kronos Rising new cover

Written by Adam S. Smith

July 14th, 2016 at 1:24 pm

Monograph on Rhomaleosaurus thorntoni

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Many readers will be familiar with the giant plesiosaur on display in the marine reptiles gallery of the Natural History Museum, London. This is a cast of the 7 metre long holotype of Rhomaleosaurus cramptoni, the original of which is housed in the National Museum of Ireland (Natural History) and formed the basis for my PhD thesis back in (time flies!) 2007. However, The Natural History Museum, London, also has its very own massive (also ~7 m long) and quite real Rhomaleosaurus type specimen to rival the ‘Dublin Pliosaur’ in size. NHMUK PV R4853, the mighty Rhomaleosaurus thorntoni, is from the Toarcian (Lower Jurassic) of Northamptonshire. It was donated to the museum prior to 1922 but has never been described and figured in its entirety before.

Rhomaleosaurus cramptoni

Rhomaleosaurus cramptoni cast on display in the NHM, London


My newest paper, co-authored with Roger Benson (Smith & Benson 2014), provides a detailed description and photographic atlas of the entire skeleton of Rhomaleosaurus thorntoni, and it was published by the Palaeontographical Society just in time for me to distribute copies to colleagues at the SVP annual meeting in Berlin last November (2014). Few monographs of this kind, i.e. a comprehensive treatments of a single taxon, exist for plesiosaurians, especially up-to-date ones, so the paper should prove useful. The monograph includes 35 photographic plates depicting, essentially, every bone in the skeleton from multiple angles. We describe the skeleton in detail and figure the more complicated elements as interpretive illustrations. It’s just a bigger than average descriptive paper, really, but one that has been many years in the making (even more than it usually takes!). I’ve been waiting for the published monograph to be listed on the Palaeontographical Society publications page prior to posting this article, but since it is not yet forthcoming I decided to post this anyway. I’ll update this blog entry with a link to the volume once it is listed. [Edit – here is the link]:

Rhomaleosaurus ilia

Rhomaleosaurus thorntoni ilia (Plate 33 from Smith & Benson [2014])

The entire manuscript, including the photographs and figures, is completely new: this is not a rehash of my PhD thesis on Rhomaleosaurus. The skeletal reconstruction is brand new as well and I hope that it comes to replace my previous reconstruction of Rhomaleosaurus in time, which I was never completely satisfied with (figured in Smith [2007], Smith & Dyke [2008], and Smith [2013]).  It is important to highlight that the new reconstruction represents R. thorntoni specifically, which we demonstrate is a distinct species, whereas the previous reconstruction represented Rhomaleosaurus sp. using R. cramptoni where possible and R. thorntoni as a proxy where not. As such, the original reconstruction was a mishmash of two different species, with related scaling errors. Most of the differences apparent between the new and old reconstructions are, however, due to stylistic improvements and a greater attention to detail, rather than genuine anatomical differences between R. cramptoni and R. thorntoni. The lateral view, especially, had some perspective issues with the ribs and limbs, which are corrected in the new reconstruction. There is still some margin for error in the proportions of the tail and neck in the new reconstruction because these are incomplete in the holotype (and only known specimen) of R. thorntoni, but I’m much more satisfied with it.

Rhomaleosaurus thorntoni

Rhomaleosaurus thorntoni reconstruction. Scale bar = 1m.

There is some doubt over the systematic position of rhomaleosaurids. They are traditionally regarded as pliosaurs, but they might not really be included within that clade, so for this reason we refrained from referring Rhomaleosaurus to Pliosauroidea in the title. We don’t include a cladistic analysis in our monograph to investigate this question, but we do summarise all previous ones and identify areas of relationship consensus within the clade Rhomaleosauridae. More cladistic work is required to confirm whether rhomaleosaurids are an early plesiosaurian offshoot, or pliosaurs proper.

Rhomaleosaurid cladograms

Ingroup relationships of rhomaleosauridae according to different researchers (text-fig 11 from Smith & Benson [2014])

So, where’s the PDF? Sadly, there isn’t one, and this has been discussed and debated in some detail over at SV-POW (here). I say ‘there isn’t one’, but what I really mean is that distribution of the PDF is forbidden, since a beautiful PDF does exist (I was annotating it in the final proof stages). I was hopeful that permission would be granted for me to share the final PDF along with the hard copies provided for authors to distribute, but it was not to be. Of course, I’m disappointed about the barrier this puts between my research and potential readers, and I’m concerned about the impact this might have on it being cited. However, the hard copy is a quality publication, which can be thought of as more of a book than a paper. Those individuals that require it for research purposes can always request one from me directly – I can’t make promises but drop me an email if you have a serious interest ([email protected]).

The Palaeontographical Society funded some of my visits to the Natural History Museum to see the fossil material and this influenced my decision to select the Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society as a publication venue for this work. Plus, the format suits such an exhaustive treatment. I’d  like to thank the editor, Yves Candela, who made a significant contribution to the volume and coordinated the whole process.

Update: The monograph is now available for sale from the Pal Soc website here.


Smith, A. S. 2007. Anatomy and systematics of the Rhomaleosauridae (Sauropterygia: Plesiosauria). PhD thesis. University College Dublin, 278pp.

Smith, A.S. 2013. Morphology of the caudal vertebrae in Rhomaleosaurus zetlandicus and a review of the evidence for a tail fin in Plesiosauria. Paludicola 9 (3): 144–158.

Smith, A.S. and Dyke, G.J. 2008. The skull of the giant predatory pliosaur Rhomaleosaurus cramptoni: implications for plesiosaur phylogenetics. Naturwissenschaften, 95, 975-980.

Smith A.S. and Benson R.B.J. 2014. Osteology of Rhomaleosaurus thorntoni (Sauropterygia: Rhomaleosauridae) from the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) of Northamptonshire, England. Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society, London: 168 (642), 1–40, pls 1–35.

Written by Adam S. Smith

January 8th, 2015 at 12:58 pm

Book review: Kronos Rising by Max Hawthorne

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“After 65 million years, the world’s greatest predator is back” – Max Hawthorne
“Oh blimey, we’re gonna die!” – an Englishman in Kronos Rising.

Note – this review contains minor spoilers.

Kronos Rising, the new novel by Max Hawthorne, is a man versus monster story of a giant pliosaur that terrorises a seaside Florida town. Author Max Hawthorne was kind enough to send me a copy of the novel and I promised to write about it here.

Kronos Rising cover

You might expect me to resist fanciful notions of pliosaur biology and physiology, but this isn’t the case. I’m always game for some science fiction, no matter how far fetched. Kronos Rising is no text book and it would be ridiculous to review it as such. However, a few comments on the science won’t hurt.

The eponymous pliosaur in Kronos Rising is a new species of Kronosaurus, dubbed Kronosaurus imperator. It isn’t specified what or where the type specimen is, or if the name is recognised by the ICZN, but that’s all by the by! The pliosaur – for there is only one – is a badass, just because, and I’m fine with that. She (it emerges that this pliosaur is female) surpasses badassery into the realm of super-villainy, for she has a vast array of powers at her disposal. These include: bullet-proof armour, echolocation, infrared vision, a directional and “phenomenal sense of smell”, “sensitive eardrums” with an acute sense of hearing, “amplified power of healing”, “resistance to disease and bacteria”, a swimming speed in excess of 45 knots (52mph), and a bad temper to boot. When it isn’t killing, it dreams of killing (no, really!). And, of course, at over 80 feet long (just over 24m), it is huge. Hawthorne goes out of his way to give his Kronosaurus imperator all the bells and whistles and it makes for a terrible foe!

Pliosaurs, of course, were not quite so terrible in reality. No real animal would have all of these adaptations. One sense – the sensitive underwater olfaction the pliosaur uses to track down its prey – is supported by evidence outlined in a Nature paper (Cruickshank et al. 1991), so Hawthorne has clearly done his research and consulted the literature. Most everything else is is speculation. Pliosaurs didn’t have armour or heavy-duty scales and were probably rather smooth like cetaceans are today, a more useful adaptation to an aquatic lifestyle. I’ve written before about the fossil evidence for huge pliosaurs, and the maximum size estimates level off at around 15m. Hawthorne’s speculative 24m long Kronosaurus is therefore an overestimate, but not outside the realm of possibility. We can roll with this, it’s science fiction.

The fascination with large size in the novel extends beyond the obvious immensity of the Kronosaurus itself, to massive boats and guns, strapping muscular men, and anglers out to seek the biggest catch. I know Max Hawthorne is a record breaking angler himself, so perhaps this is a fisherman thing? There are nautical terms aplenty throughout the novel and for that I appreciated the glossary at the back of the book. Still, I found the technical detail sometimes bogged down proceedings – I’m obviously a landlubber.

The novel contains several surprise twists but is generally conventional in both plot and character development. The love story, for example, is spelled out from the get go. The main male and female protagonists share troubled histories over which they can bond and this gives them both depth and motivation, but many of the characters in Kronos Rising come off as rather one dimensional – stereotypes of the genre I suppose. The dialogue, especially some of the innuendo-charged flirtation, made me cringe at times, and the phonetically spelled Jamaican accent didn’t work for me either – it was distracting.

The pliosaur, I noted, only seems to kill men. Perhaps this is some sort of karmic retribution for the monstrous misogynistic acts committed by men against women in this novel? Or, maybe it is simply because there are so few active female characters.

I couldn’t say with certainty where the creature came from in the first place. There are some flash-back scenes to the Late Cretaceous describing how a small population of prehistoric critters came to find themselves enclosed in a caldera during the explosive end to the Mesozoic Era. Incidentally, I should note that the heyday of the apex pliosaur was during the Middle-Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, and they became extinct before the end Cretaceous mass extinction event. Nevertheless, exactly how this location and its pliosaur inhabitant remained isolated (under water?) for 65 million years, and the details of the events leading to the release of its occupants into the present day ocean, are unclear. I guess this ambiguity was intentional but it is somewhat unsatisfying. With regard to plot twists I appreciated the tension generated by bringing the combustible mix of characters together in the climax.

In conclusion, this is a novel with obvious echoes of Jaws and Jurassic Park, and it is great to see pliosaurs get the attention they deserve, but I was never completely reeled in by Kronos Rising. There’s surely an audience out there for it, the glowing reviews of Kronos Rising on and elsewhere are testament to that, and indicate that I’m in the minority here! So, pick up a copy and find out for yourself!

Buy Kronos Rising from here
‘Like’ Kronos Rising’s Facebook page

Written by Adam S. Smith

October 31st, 2014 at 12:03 pm

Book review: Plesiosaur Peril by Daniel Loxton

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In Plesiosaur Peril, author Daniel Loxton plunges us into the Jurassic ocean, to recount a day in the life of a baby Cryptoclidus. The book is the third in Loxton’s ‘Tales of Prehistoric Life’ series, which includes the stories Ankylosaur Attack and Pterosaur Troubles.

Plesiosaur Peril

In this short children’s story we follow a juvenile Cryptoclidus and the rest of her pod as she goes about her daily chores. She seeks some gastroliths, gulps salty sea air, hunts for food, and eventually follows some prey that leads her astray. Of course, this isn’t an ocean paradise free of danger. The villain of the tale is Liopleurodon and our heroine soon finds herself in a perilous situation – you’ll have to get your own copy to discover if curiosity killed the Cryptoclidus!

Plesiosaur Peril

The book is aimed at children aged 8–12 so the paragraphs are short, snappy, and easy to read. There’s a healthy balance between text and imagery, and the visuals, also by Daniel Loxton (with Jim W.W. Smith), illustrate the story beautifully. They consist of a combination of real world photography and computer-generated digital art, which blend almost seamlessly.

Plesiosaur Peril

The fossil remains of Cryptoclidus and Liopleurodon are known from the Oxford Clay Formation of Europe (165 million years ago), so the two species certainly lived alongside each other. It is apparent from the accurate appearance of the plesiosaurs that they were thoroughly researched. Darren Naish is credited in the acknowledgements and presumably takes credit here. The proportions and anatomy are just right, and the same is true for the other prehistoric creatures that show up throughout the story: ichthyosaurs, ammonites, belemnites; all beautifully rendered and well-researched. They are the best I’ve seen in any book of this kind.

Plesiosaur Peril

Quite sensibly, the story itself isn’t bogged down in facts and figures, however, the last page of the book provides some insights into both plesiosaur species for those wishing to dig a little deeper. In particular, this section outlines some of the evidence for the events recounted in the story. Darren Naish has also posted a detailed online article on his Tetrapod Zoology blog, covering some of the behaviour depicted in the book, beating me to it by several weeks! So, instead of covering the same ground, I direct you there.

Plesiosaur Peril

In conclusion this is a lovely and visually striking book that makes the perfect bedtime story for any child with (or without, for that matter) an interest in prehistoric life. I look forward to seeing what the future may hold for the ‘Tales of Prehistoric Life’ series.

Plesiosaur Peril is available from here and here,  and also from via the Plesio-store here.

Written by Adam S. Smith

April 16th, 2014 at 5:37 pm