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Book review: Kronos Rising: Kraken (vol. 1), by Max Hawthorne

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“[His] mind began to shut down in an effort to preserve his sanity” – Garm Braddock in Kronos Rising: Kraken (vol. 1)

Hawthorne’s mahoosive Kronosaurus imperator is back and this time she’s brought her buddies along for the ride. This sequel to Kronos Rising (which I reviewed here) is set decades after the events of the first book, in a world where pliosaurs now run amok. Oceanic ecosystems are in turmoil and it’s time to get military on these bastard reptiles! Beefcake brothers Garm and Dirk are at the heart of proceedings as they take steps to emerge victorious from the raging ‘Saurian War’. Little do they know the titular Kraken is waiting to arrive on the scene to cause even more havoc…

Kronos Rising: Kraken (vol. 1.) cover

I won’t comment in detail on the story, style, tone, characters, and so on. I have opinions, of course, but who am I, as a lowly palaeontologist, to judge? All I’ll say is that it wasn’t to my taste. What I can focus on, as I did in my previous review, is the science. The aspects of the book that only a pedant like me will get his undies in a bind over. So, that’s what I’ll do – it’s panty twisting time.

One of my criticisms of the original novel was the dubious status of the species Kronosaurus imperator. This is the sort of nit-pick that only the most hard-nosed academic would rest any importance on, but I noticed the issue is still not resolved in Kronos Rising: Kraken. It means the species is technically invalid – a nomen nudum. This strikes me as somewhat appropriate given Hawthorne’s proclivity for exposing his characters’ most intimate fleshy parts.

Generally the anatomical descriptions are very good (n.b. I’m talking about the reptiles now!) and Hawthorne has done research to ensure the scientist characters use the correct language and terminology. However, he’s also not afraid to take liberties. For example, in the book, pliosaurs lay spherical eggs in nests, whereas we know sauropterygians gave birth to live young. The pliosaur’s teeth are described as sharply ridged with razor-sharp ends, whereas the course ridges on pliosaur teeth aren’t sharp, and pliosaur teeth really taper to a blunt bone-crushing apex. The fictional monsters skin consists of a “thick hide covered with rock hard scales”, yet it “absorbs 30% of the oxygen they need from the water”. In reality, there would have to be a compromise – skin has to be thin to absorb oxygen. In my Kronos Rising review I compiled a long list of the pliosaur’s superpowers. We can now also add camouflage onto said list. Don’t get me wrong, these are not complaints per se, I’m just saying. The key word to remember here – fiction. Let it go, let it go!

As with the previous novel, there’s a worrying infatuation with large size, be it the size of the creatures, the vessels, the machinery, the architecture, Dirk’s penis, Garm’s penis. “What can I say? Size matters!” chuckles one of the characters in the book. If you, too, believe size matters, then this is the book for you!

While Kronos Rising: Kraken (vol. 1) didn’t float my boat, aficionados of maritime monster fiction should probably pick up a copy and judge for themselves. Can thousands of Hawthorne’s fanatic ‘Legions of Kronos’ be wrong? Kronos Rising: Kraken (vol. 1), is available from here and here. The official Kronos Rising website is located at and you can also visit and like the Kronos Rising Facebook Page here, where Hawthorne makes a special effort to engage with readers, and sometimes puts forward his own interesting pet paleontological hypotheses. Lastly, thanks go to Max for the review copy – I hope you don’t regret the kind gesture!

A quick additional note. The original Kronos Rising novel now has a swanky new front cover, featuring amazing artwork. Check it out!

Kronos Rising new cover

Written by Adam S. Smith

July 14th, 2016 at 1:24 pm

Book review: Kronos Rising by Max Hawthorne

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“After 65 million years, the world’s greatest predator is back” – Max Hawthorne
“Oh blimey, we’re gonna die!” – an Englishman in Kronos Rising.

Note – this review contains minor spoilers.

Kronos Rising, the new novel by Max Hawthorne, is a man versus monster story of a giant pliosaur that terrorises a seaside Florida town. Author Max Hawthorne was kind enough to send me a copy of the novel and I promised to write about it here.

Kronos Rising cover

You might expect me to resist fanciful notions of pliosaur biology and physiology, but this isn’t the case. I’m always game for some science fiction, no matter how far fetched. Kronos Rising is no text book and it would be ridiculous to review it as such. However, a few comments on the science won’t hurt.

The eponymous pliosaur in Kronos Rising is a new species of Kronosaurus, dubbed Kronosaurus imperator. It isn’t specified what or where the type specimen is, or if the name is recognised by the ICZN, but that’s all by the by! The pliosaur – for there is only one – is a badass, just because, and I’m fine with that. She (it emerges that this pliosaur is female) surpasses badassery into the realm of super-villainy, for she has a vast array of powers at her disposal. These include: bullet-proof armour, echolocation, infrared vision, a directional and “phenomenal sense of smell”, “sensitive eardrums” with an acute sense of hearing, “amplified power of healing”, “resistance to disease and bacteria”, a swimming speed in excess of 45 knots (52mph), and a bad temper to boot. When it isn’t killing, it dreams of killing (no, really!). And, of course, at over 80 feet long (just over 24m), it is huge. Hawthorne goes out of his way to give his Kronosaurus imperator all the bells and whistles and it makes for a terrible foe!

Pliosaurs, of course, were not quite so terrible in reality. No real animal would have all of these adaptations. One sense – the sensitive underwater olfaction the pliosaur uses to track down its prey – is supported by evidence outlined in a Nature paper (Cruickshank et al. 1991), so Hawthorne has clearly done his research and consulted the literature. Most everything else is is speculation. Pliosaurs didn’t have armour or heavy-duty scales and were probably rather smooth like cetaceans are today, a more useful adaptation to an aquatic lifestyle. I’ve written before about the fossil evidence for huge pliosaurs, and the maximum size estimates level off at around 15m. Hawthorne’s speculative 24m long Kronosaurus is therefore an overestimate, but not outside the realm of possibility. We can roll with this, it’s science fiction.

The fascination with large size in the novel extends beyond the obvious immensity of the Kronosaurus itself, to massive boats and guns, strapping muscular men, and anglers out to seek the biggest catch. I know Max Hawthorne is a record breaking angler himself, so perhaps this is a fisherman thing? There are nautical terms aplenty throughout the novel and for that I appreciated the glossary at the back of the book. Still, I found the technical detail sometimes bogged down proceedings – I’m obviously a landlubber.

The novel contains several surprise twists but is generally conventional in both plot and character development. The love story, for example, is spelled out from the get go. The main male and female protagonists share troubled histories over which they can bond and this gives them both depth and motivation, but many of the characters in Kronos Rising come off as rather one dimensional – stereotypes of the genre I suppose. The dialogue, especially some of the innuendo-charged flirtation, made me cringe at times, and the phonetically spelled Jamaican accent didn’t work for me either – it was distracting.

The pliosaur, I noted, only seems to kill men. Perhaps this is some sort of karmic retribution for the monstrous misogynistic acts committed by men against women in this novel? Or, maybe it is simply because there are so few active female characters.

I couldn’t say with certainty where the creature came from in the first place. There are some flash-back scenes to the Late Cretaceous describing how a small population of prehistoric critters came to find themselves enclosed in a caldera during the explosive end to the Mesozoic Era. Incidentally, I should note that the heyday of the apex pliosaur was during the Middle-Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, and they became extinct before the end Cretaceous mass extinction event. Nevertheless, exactly how this location and its pliosaur inhabitant remained isolated (under water?) for 65 million years, and the details of the events leading to the release of its occupants into the present day ocean, are unclear. I guess this ambiguity was intentional but it is somewhat unsatisfying. With regard to plot twists I appreciated the tension generated by bringing the combustible mix of characters together in the climax.

In conclusion, this is a novel with obvious echoes of Jaws and Jurassic Park, and it is great to see pliosaurs get the attention they deserve, but I was never completely reeled in by Kronos Rising. There’s surely an audience out there for it, the glowing reviews of Kronos Rising on and elsewhere are testament to that, and indicate that I’m in the minority here! So, pick up a copy and find out for yourself!

Buy Kronos Rising from here
‘Like’ Kronos Rising’s Facebook page

Written by Adam S. Smith

October 31st, 2014 at 12:03 pm

The Planet Dinosaur plesiosaurs (part 2)

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So, time for more Planet Dinosaur plesiosaurs… In part 1 of we familiarised ourselves with the taxonomy and appearance of the plesiosaurian stars of the fourth episode of the BBC’s Planet Dinosaur, ‘Fight for Life’. Now we’re all set up to pick apart, with ruthless abandon, the animators’ painstaking efforts to bring these animals to life.

Predator X Planet Dinosaur

Predator X. We're going to need a bigger blog. Copyright BBC.

Plesiosaur swimming is an active area of research and frankly we don’t know exactly how they swam. There are some fundamental uncertainties in our understanding of plesiosaur locomotion, in particular, how did the four limbs move relative to each other? Sure, we might also be off in our estimations of dinosaur gaits too, but at least we have the footprint evidence to understand the basics. For example, theropod dinosaurs like Allosaurus, which also appeared in this episode, put one foot in front of the other. Yet the animators still didn’t quite manage to capture this satisfactorily as to my eye the walk cycles in the Planet Dinosaur dinos are pretty wooden. So, with this in mind, what chance did the plesiosaurs have?

Well, I’m probably overstating the point. It is true that we don’t know exactly how plesisoaurs swam, but we do have a good understanding of the limb strokes in general, and we know how they didn’t swim. So let’s start there. Derived aquatic animals generally swim either by undulating their body (e.g. crocs, dolphins etc.) or by keeping their body sturdy and using their limbs (e.g. turtles, penguins). Plesiosaurs are in the latter category and their skeleton is constructed accordingly to resist flexibility. They have tightly articulating dorsal vertebrae, robust ribs, and a strong rigid ventral skeleton consisting of flat plate-like girdles, bridged by a strong mesh of gastralia (belly ribs).

To my distress, some early movement cycles of the Kimmerosaurus included not only a limb-based phase, but also a wriggling  phase with long lateral undulations of the whole body, with the flippers pulled in flush to the flanks. In this regard, the Planet Dinosaur plesiosaurs originally wanted to have their cake and eat it. Thankfully these side-to-side wiggling phases, and also an up-down wiggling phase, didn’t appear in the final show. However, there is still a little too much dorso-ventral flexibility in the plesiosaur bodies on occasion. The Kimmerosaurus sometimes appear rather too bendy, and in one scene the pliosaur pretty much breaks its own spine, but I was pleased to see these deviations kept to a minimum.

It is generally agreed that the plesiosaur flipper stoke was essentially a modified form of underwater flying with a major up-down component and minor back-forth component. They were not used to row and it is unlikely that the flippers could be pulled back to be flush with the flanks of the body, even though they do this every now and again in the show. The limb-stroke of the forelimbs also looks a bit off at times in Planet Dinosaur. It is my understanding that the digital models are rigged with approximate points of flexibility – they don’t have anatomically correct skeletal anatomy inside – so it is only to be expected that the points of joints and range of motion may not always be spot on. It’s also worth bearing in mind than animators are not biologists, yet they’re ultimately responsible for the construction of biological critters.

When I saw the trailer for Planet Dinosaur I noticed the flippers in the pliosaur being pulled back almost flush with the body and feared for the worst. This happens in the scene when the pliosaur comes to blows with the Kimmerosaurus. But this was a one off and for the most part the pliosaur is cruising around with healthy deep limb strokes. Plesiosaurs may have changed their gait depending on the the velocity and maneuverability they wished to achieve, so it is also reasonable to suppose that all four limbs sometimes moved in unison for a burst of speed, as also depicted in the show. Overall, I thought the Kimmerosaurus‘ elegant prancing and dancing, twisting and turning, was wondrous. It would be unfair, and perhaps premature given our current state of understanding, to pick on it too much.

I had some problems with the interactions between the animals and their underwater environment, the water resistance wasn’t always convincing. At times the plesiosaurs seemed to move via some sort of invisible jet propulsion. Either that, or the momentum being generated from the limb stokes was overestimated. This might be put down to limitations in the technology, and I suppose there is a certain amount of intuition required for perfecting these details. similar explanation could also be invoked to explain why some of the dinosaur walk cycles in the series don’t always cut it when it comes to mass and momentum.

A quick note on that characteristic feature of the plesiosaur, the long neck, which was correctly restored as a relatively inflexible structure. Not a swan-like pose in sight, and no graceful necks arching out of the water. Other recent documentaries (e.g. Sea Rex 3D) just couldn’t resist including such outdated but iconic imagery, presumably against better advice. The evidence for plesiosaur feeding habits from the gutter-like trace fossils, or Lebensspuren (for that it their proper name), was discussed by Darren Naish on the old version of his Tetrapod Zoology site. These structures might have been produced by plesiosaurs, they might not, but it is a reasonable suggestion that fits with other evidence from stomach contents (McHenry et al., 2005).

Kimmerosaurus Planet Dinosaur

Kimmerosaurus - The Jurassic vaccume cleaner. Copyright BBC.

On several occasions in the program the plesiosaurs break the surface, where, dowsed in harsh sunlight, I’d be hard pushed to tell whether the splashes are CGI or real (if I didn’t already know). These scenes were really excellently excecuted. The pliosaur comes up for air at one point and snorts out a powerful jet of water spray from its external nostrils. It isn’t certain that plesiosaurs breathed through their tiny external nostrils, especially if they employed the method of underwater olfaction explained in the show (these plesiosaurs want to have their cake and eat it again!), but, well, why not, it looked nice didn’t it!

The scientific exposition sections included some dodgy versions of my Rhomaleosaurus reconstruction as a stand in for Predator X, which was therefore anatomically incorrect for a pliosaurid. I believe that the Kimmerosaurus illustration was also based on my Rhomaleosaurus reconstruction. The tooth mark evidence in the skull of a plesiosaur comes from an elasmosaurid specimen formerly referred to the nomen dubium ‘Woolungasaurus‘, and now known as Eromangasaurus australis (following some confusion resulting from two researchers accidentally stepping on each others toes a little and publishing reviews of the material almost simultaneously – the specimen had a short stint as Tuarangisaurus australis and Eromangasaurus carinognathus) (Kear, 2007). Anyway, it certainly isn’t Plesiosaurus as the reconstruction was mysteriously labelled in the show. The interpretation of the bite marks is pretty speculative as who knows for sure the position of the the animal in the water column? But pliosaurs sometimes ate long-necked plesiosaurs, that is certain.

Predator X Planet Dinosaur

A hungry Predator X wrestles with a sand bank in search for tasty Kimmero-morsels. Copyright BBC.

As scientists, palaeontologists have the luxury of not having to commit to any single hypothesis. We can say without shame that we don’t know, at least not with certainty, how plesiosaurs hunted, how they breathed, how they swam. We can interpret evidence tentatively and you’ll have noticed the frequent use of non-commital language in this review such as ‘probably’ and ‘unlikely’. But this doesn’t help artists, script writers or animators who, charged with the task of restoring these long-dead beasties, are forced to plump for one option of the other (under the format used by Planet Dinosaur at least). With all the pitfalls presented to them along the way, I think the Planet Dinosaur team did a sterling job bringing Predator X and Kimmerosaurus back to life. And no, I’m not being apologetic, or sympathetic, just because I was involved. I’m really enjoying this series and look forward to the other episodes.


Kear, B. 2007. Taxonomic clarification of the Australian elasmosaurid genus Eromangasaurus, with reference to other austral elasmosaur taxa. Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology, 27, 241-246.

McHenry, C., Cook, A., and Wroe, S. 2005. Bottom feeding plesiosaurs. Science, 310, 75.

Written by Adam S. Smith

October 8th, 2011 at 12:34 pm

The Planet Dinosaur plesiosaurs (part 1)

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Astute viewers of BBC’s plesiosaur-fest on Planet Dinosaur this week may have spotted my name dash across the screen at the end credits. ‘Fight for Life’, the fourth in the series, was the first episode, and so far as I’m aware only episode, to plunge us into the Mesozoic oceans and introduce us to some marine life. I’ll obviously skip the dinosaurs and concentrate just on the plesiosaurs.

Having seen the earliest designs of the marine reptiles for this episode, and later the first test animations, the show might have been heading for a disaster. You can thank me now, if you wish, for helping to purge swan-necks from the show and for banishing bodily undulations from the plesiosaurs’ locomotory repertoire. Looking back at the huge gulf in accuracy between the early designs I saw and the finished renderings helps me to put them into perspective, and so I look upon the anatomical issues that remain with some relief in the knowledge that they could have been so much worse. But I would certainly tweak aspects of the anatomy and movement if I had the chance. Of course, budget and deadlines all played a factor and limited the amount of back and forth possible in the design process. And it also doesn’t help that so little is actually known about the stars of the show, both Kimmerosaurus and Predator X. The designers depend on existing reconstructions and restorations for visual guidance and this is often lacking.

The cryptoclidid plesiosaur Kimmerosaurus is closely related to Cryptoclidus. It was named in 1981 on the basis of an isolated skull (Brown, 1981). Some referred material, including some anterior cervical vertebrae, was later identified and subsequent comparison of these vertebrae with those of  Colymbosaurus, a genus known inconveniently from everything but a head, led Brown et al. (1986) to suggest both genera belonged to the same taxon. Whether congeneric or not, the similarities in the overlapping anatomy are close enough that skeletal data from Colymbosaurus was used as a basis for filling in the gaps in our knowledge of the postcranium of Kimmerosaurus in Planet Dinosaur. Another problem though, is that Colymbosaurus is a bit of a prickly taxon itself, but I won’t confuse matters any further. Taxonomy aside, we know that at least one moderately large (up to around 6m) long-necked plesiosaur skulked around in the Late Jurassic. Plesiosaurs from the Tithonian of Svalbard have been tentatively referred to Kimmerosaurus.

Kimmerosaurus Planet Dinosaur

Kimmerosaurus gets a close up in Planet Dinosaur. Copyright BBC.

Predator X is a pliosaur with more media hype than it probably deserves, and a ridiculous name betraying how little we actually know about it. A foray into the twitterverse provided some insightful public reactions to the name that follwed the program, some of which I’ll share here:

@furiousgerbil said:
Right. There’s a dinosaur called ‘Predator X’ that’s a rubbish name. It should be called a Furiousaurus. I’ll write a letter. To someone.

@chrismeredith quipped:
I would enjoy Predator X more, but I haven’t seen Predators IV-IX yet.

@backwards7 joked:
Naming a dinosaur ‘Predator X’ makes it sound like the anonymous defendant in a sexual assault trial.

And @JohnLoony was justified to ask the legitimate question:
“Planet Dinosaur” on BBC1 featured a big marine pliosaur called “Predator X”. Why doesn’t it have a proper Latin classification name?!??

Firstly, it’s not a dinosaur, this should really have been made clearer in the program. Secondly, there is a reason why it doesn’t have a proper scientific binomial name: it hasn’t been described yet. ‘Predator X’ is really just the name for the individual animal and isn’t intended to be a stand in name for the taxon, although I think that’s how it was received by many viewers. Such is the power of media hype. I’ve skimmed over the history of Pred X in a previous article where I’ve explained that preliminary research by Knutsen et al. (2009) allies Predator X with Pliosaurus. I can’t bring myself to constantly refer to this animal as Pred X every time, so I’ll tend to go with the term pliosaur from now on instead…

Kimmerosaurus Planet Dinosaur

Predator X swims overhead in Planet Dinosaur. Copyright BBC.

So, let’s review what we saw. Overall I was quite pleased with the appearance of the pliosaur, which was based on reconstructions of Pliosaurus. But there are problems. The dentition is way off and altogether rather too generic, with the diagnostic large caniniform teeth omitted completely. I was never consulted about the teeth of the pliosaur so I dodge all responsibility here, but I do know the animators had issues with the teeth of Kimmerosaurus too, its mouth wouldn’t shut unless they shrunk and tweaked the angle of the teeth a bit. In the case of both Kimmerosaurus and the pliosaur, the modelers had wrongly endowed them with a slight overbite, so the tooth rows don’t quite line up as they would have in life – no wonder they couldn’t get the teeth to interlock. The teeth were added at a later stage in the design procedure, after the overall body shape had been finalised, so it was too late to go back. As a workaround, they angled the teeth in the mandible more horizontally and shrunk them a bit. Dodgy stuff. The puffy eyelids in the pliosaur seemed a bit unnecessary and I’d have preferred more musculature at the rear of the jawline, but overall the head is pretty good in my opinion.

I thought the head of Kimmerosaurus, with its nice long tooth rows of many tiny teeth, was rather good too. I spotted the far too deeply concave temporal fenestrae quite early on in the design process and despite my concerns (they were supposed to be filled out later on) they still managed to find their way into the finished renderings. The dinosaurs in the series have also suffered the same fate. At least the eyes weren’t placed in the temporal fenestrae in Kimmerosaurus as has occurred in other plesiosaur restorations.

The bodies of both animals are also generally good, with satisfyingly streamlined outlines and beefy musculature around the base of the limbs, fitting for animals that propel themselves through the water by flipper power. The slightly flattened tip of the tail in the pliosaur was a compromise between a fully developed tail fin, a feature I and others suspect many plesiosaurs had, and no tail fin at all. I liked it. I liked the grizzled appearance of the pliosaur’s skin, but while I was pleased to see the end of the obligatory black and white pattern so often attributed to large pliosaurs (post WWD Liopleurodon), I was a bit disappointed that every single plesiosaur was basically grey. I’d have loved a few greens, or at least some differentiation between the predator and prey. Also, despite my suggestion, no parasites or patholoies to be seen on any of the beasties, which I thought was a lost opportunity.

Well, I think I’ve gone on far enough for now so I’ll leave discussion of the behaviour, animation and range of motion for part 2. Suffice to say there are issues. Comparisons with the WWD episode ‘Cruel Sea’ are also justified and I may head into such territory on a later occasion too.


Brown, D. S. 1981. The English Upper Jurassic Plesiosauroidea (Reptilia) and a review of the phylogeny and classification of the Plesiosauria. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Geology, 35, 253-347.

Brown, D. S., Milner, A. C., and Taylor, M. A. 1986. New material of the plesiosaur Kimmerosaurus langhami Brown from the Kimmeridge Clay of Dorset. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology, 40, 225-234.

Knutsen, E., Druckenmiller, P., Hurum, J., Nakrem, H. 2009. Preliminary account of new Late Jurassic pliosaurid material from Svalbard, Norway. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 128A.