the plesiosaur directory main logo



Plesiosaur Bites

Book review: Plesiosaur Peril by Daniel Loxton

without comments

In Plesiosaur Peril, author Daniel Loxton plunges us into the Jurassic ocean, to recount a day in the life of a baby Cryptoclidus. The book is the third in Loxton’s ‘Tales of Prehistoric Life’ series, which includes the stories Ankylosaur Attack and Pterosaur Troubles.

Plesiosaur Peril

In this short children’s story we follow a juvenile Cryptoclidus and the rest of her pod as she goes about her daily chores. She seeks some gastroliths, gulps salty sea air, hunts for food, and eventually follows some prey that leads her astray. Of course, this isn’t an ocean paradise free of danger. The villain of the tale is Liopleurodon and our heroine soon finds herself in a perilous situation – you’ll have to get your own copy to discover if curiosity killed the Cryptoclidus!

Plesiosaur Peril

The book is aimed at children aged 8–12 so the paragraphs are short, snappy, and easy to read. There’s a healthy balance between text and imagery, and the visuals, also by Daniel Loxton (with Jim W.W. Smith), illustrate the story beautifully. They consist of a combination of real world photography and computer-generated digital art, which blend almost seamlessly.

Plesiosaur Peril

The fossil remains of Cryptoclidus and Liopleurodon are known from the Oxford Clay Formation of Europe (165 million years ago), so the two species certainly lived alongside each other. It is apparent from the accurate appearance of the plesiosaurs that they were thoroughly researched. Darren Naish is credited in the acknowledgements and presumably takes credit here. The proportions and anatomy are just right, and the same is true for the other prehistoric creatures that show up throughout the story: ichthyosaurs, ammonites, belemnites; all beautifully rendered and well-researched. They are the best I’ve seen in any book of this kind.

Plesiosaur Peril

Quite sensibly, the story itself isn’t bogged down in facts and figures, however, the last page of the book provides some insights into both plesiosaur species for those wishing to dig a little deeper. In particular, this section outlines some of the evidence for the events recounted in the story. Darren Naish has also posted a detailed online article on his Tetrapod Zoology blog, covering some of the behaviour depicted in the book, beating me to it by several weeks! So, instead of covering the same ground, I direct you there.

Plesiosaur Peril

In conclusion this is a lovely and visually striking book that makes the perfect bedtime story for any child with (or without, for that matter) an interest in prehistoric life. I look forward to seeing what the future may hold for the ‘Tales of Prehistoric Life’ series.

Plesiosaur Peril is available from Amazon.com here and Amazon.co.uk here,  and also from Amazon.com via the Plesio-store here.

Written by Adam S. Smith

April 16th, 2014 at 5:37 pm

A new domain for The Marine Reptiles Forum

without comments

The marine reptiles forum, which was unfortunately hacked last year (2013) and has been offline for several months since, is now back up and running. Richard Forrest was able to salvage all the old posts and user information, and has restored the forum at a dedicated new domain: marinereptiles.org. The forum is home to an open community of fossil marine reptile researchers and enthusiasts, and is an  excellent place to discuss all manner of topics related to prehistoric marine reptiles. The site is run by Richard Forrest (plesiosaur.com), Mike Everhart (oceansofkansas.com), and myself, so we’ll do our best to minimise spam and approve genuine new members without too much delay. Registration is now open so see you there!

The marine reptiles forum

Written by Adam S. Smith

January 18th, 2014 at 5:33 pm

The Plesiosaur Directory wins the 2013 Golden Trilobite Award

without comments

The Golden Trilobite is awarded annually by the Palaeontological Association to “high quality amateur and institutional websites that promote the charitable aims of the Association”. I’ve no idea who nominated my website this year, but my thanks go to whoever raised it to the attention of the the PalAss Council, because it was a welcome surprise to learn that the Plesiosaur Directory was awarded the 2013 Golden Trilobite.

The golden trilobite award

I’m obviously delighted and honoured for The Plesiosaur Directory to win this award, and I thank PalAss for  recognising the site in this way. The Plesiosaur Directory started life as a small Geocities hosted site way back in June 2001, under the full title of “THE PLESIOSAUR DIRECTORY: A REVIEW OF THE SAUROPTERYGIA”. The site transferred to its own domain in March 2006 (plesiosauria.com), and remained in a basic html format until 2011, when I finally learned a bit of php and launched a new version of the site. This has been steep learning curve for someone with no training, and things are only going to get more difficult, as my next task is to convert The Plesiosaur Directory to a database driven site (at the moment only the plesiosaur bites blog is database driven), which will make it far easier to update and manage. The site has received other accolades in the past, such as when the journal ‘Science’ featured it in the “best of the Web in Science” (2006, Vol 313, Issue 5791, P.1211), so I suppose this means I must be doing something right.

However, these accolades remind me that there’s so much work left to do. Frankly, I’m not satisfied with the site as it stands, and I’m fully aware there are a great many genera missing from the directory, and numerous pages are rapidly becoming out of date as palaeontology marches on relentlessly. Some of the content hasn’t been updated since 2001, and was therefore written by a 20-year-old student version of myself. Back then, I could barely string together a coherent sentence. There are all sorts of reasons why I’ve let things slowly slip a little. However, this award will spur me on to upgrade the code, fill in those missing gaps, update the various galleries and pages, and write blog articles more frequently. There’s certainly no shortage of topics to cover.

The Plesiosaur Directory isn’t the only site dedicated to plesiosaurs. There are, in my opinion, other sites equally deserved of such an award. The Plesiosaur Site (plesiosaur.com), in particular, run by Richard Forrest, contains a wealth of data on plesiosaurs. Especially useful is the database containing information on plesiosaurian collections, distribution, taxonomy, and references. A major inspiration. Richard also hosted The Marine Reptiles Forum on plesiosaur.com until it was hacked earlier this year. We hope to get that back up and running soon.

For more information on the Golden Trilobite, including previous winners, see here. 

Written by Adam S. Smith

November 10th, 2013 at 5:10 pm

Pliosaurus kevani – the Weymouth Bay Pliosaur

with 5 comments

I’ve been rather quiet again recently, however, as coauthor of an article just published in PLOS ONE, I’ve good reason to come out of my shell today. The new paper describes and names the Weymouth Bay Pliosaur, a spectacular almost complete skull over 2m long from. As discussed in the open access paper (do take a look), the specimen is sufficiently different from all other pliosaurs to warrant a scientific name of its own, Pliosaurus kevani.

Weymouth Bay Pliosaur

Pliosaurus kevani was named in honour of Kevan Sheehan, the Osmington Mills café owner who collected most of the skull, piece by piece, over a period of eight years during daily walks along the foreshore. Kevan collected chunks up to 60 kg in mass as they weathered out from the Jurassic aged Kimmeridge Clay Formation sea-cliff. The specimen was purchased with funding secured by Dorset County Council’s museum service from the Heritage Lottery Fund Collecting Cultures programme and Dorset and Devon county councils. It was prepared between 2010 and 2011 by Scott Moore-Fay and went on public display in Dorchester County Museum in July 2011.

Richard Forrest, who was involved with the project from the beginning, first had the idea of putting together a ‘dream team’ of British plesiosaur specialists to study and describe the skull. This is the first collaboration of its kind among plesiosaur researchers (as far as I know), and I feel lucky to have had the opportunity to contribute to it under the driving force of our lead author, Roger Benson.

Weymouth Bay Pliosaur

Roger Benson (left) and Richard Forrest (right) collecting data from the Weymouth Bay Pliosaur – Pliosaurus kevani

The massive skull has a long snout, circular orbits, huge temporal openings for the jaw musculature, and a deep mandible. Large portions of the skull have been crushed flat during fossilisation, so one of my tasks was to reconstruct the skull to show how it might have appeared before it was flattened. After several versions and much input from Mark Evans, I’m pleased with how it turned out, and I think we have a pretty accurate reconstruction of Pliosaurus. On the basis of this reconstruction I’ve also had a go at restoring the life appearance of the head of P. kevani in profile. Despite its large size and massive teeth, the head is rather gracile.

Weymouth Bay Pliosaur
Weymouth Bay Pliosaur

Pliosaurus belongs to a group of plesiosaurians known as thalassophonean pliosaurs. If you haven’t heard of them before, that’s because the name Thalassophonea, or “sea slayers”, was proposed just this year (Benson & Druckenmiller, 2013) for a natural group of derived giant pliosaurids including Pliosaurus, Liopleurodon, and Kronosaurus. Thalassophoneans were macropredators, that is, giant predators doing the sort of dirty work in the Middle-Late Jurassic and Cretaceous that rhomaleosaurids had done in the Early Jurassic. The paper also discusses the evolution of pliosaurids. The earliest thalattophoneans have a long mandibular symphysis, but in later member it becomes shorter. This trend is related to a shift in the dietary habits of pliosaurs from primarily fish-eaters to macropredators. In conjunction with this trend, we demonstrate that pliosaurids tend to follow Cope’s Rule – they get larger throughout their evolutionary history.

Weymouth Bay Pliosaur

We also name two other new species of Pliosaurus in the paper, P. westburyensis and P. carpenteri, based on material in the Bristol Museum & Art Gallery from Westbury, Wiltshire. Again, there are aspects of the morphology in these specimens that distinguish them from one another, but don’t justify new genus names. So, add these new species to the existing list of valid Pliosaurus species (P. funkei, also known as Predator X, P. brachydeirus, P. rossicus, there might be one or two more, pending thorough description of the material) and we find ourselves with a rather large number of species within a single genus (although some invalid species of Pliosaurus are sunk too). Future research might show greater generic diversity among these species, but that’s really dependent on the discovery of more satisfactory fossil material.

Written by Adam S. Smith

May 31st, 2013 at 9:21 pm